We explain what an interview is, its participants, objective and the characteristics of each type. Also, various examples.
An interview can be work, journalistic or clinical.
What is an interview?
An interview is an exchange of ideas or opinions through a conversation that takes place between two or more people. All of the persons present in an interview they dialogue about a certain question.
Within an interview, two roles can be differentiated:
- Interviewer. It fulfills the function of directing the interview and raises the topic to be discussed by asking questions. In turn, the interview begins and ends.
- Interviewed. It is one that is voluntarily exposed to the questioning of the interviewer.
There are job, journalistic or clinical interviews. All are reciprocalIn other words, in it the interviewer poses a structured questioning or a totally free conversation with the interviewee.
Types of interviews
A formal and structured interview is characterized by being presented in a standardized way; In it, questions are asked that were previously thought and that are directed to a particular interviewee who specifically answers what is being asked.
For this reason, the interviewer has a Liberty Limited when formulating the questions, since these cannot arise from the interview itself, but rather from a questionnaire carried out beforehand.
Among its advantages are:
- The information is easy to interpret, which favors theanalysis comparative.
- The interviewer does not require much experience on the techniqueas it follows the schedule of questions.
Its disadvantages can be:
- This technique has limitations when it comes to delving into a topic that arises in the interview since it follows a predetermined questionnaire, which does not allow the dialogue flow naturally.
Unstructured and free interview
Unlike the structured interview, an unstructured interview is flexible and open since, even if there is aobjective of research that governs the questions, the answers are not expected to have any depth or orderly content.
In this type of interview, the interviewer is in charge of formulating questions but (unlike the formal interview) he should not follow a schedule on how to carry out the questions and their formulation.
Often times spontaneity and journalism They lead to a free dialogue, generating topics of debate that arise as the talk flows.
Its advantages are:
- Being adaptable and free, a pleasant climate is achieved that enables a deepening of the topics of interest.
- Allow cross-examination if the interviewee mentioned a topic of interest.
Among its disadvantages are:
- As the topics are often expanded, it is more expensive to complete because of the time spent by the interviewer.
- It requires a great technique and information on the subject to be treated to be able to have arguments and opinions that allow deepening and dialogue.
Within this type of interview we find the following subdivision:
- Depth interview
- Focused interview
- Focused interview
Examples of interviews
A clinical interview is conducted between the doctor and his patient.
In many cases, before accessing a job, interviews are usually held to get to know the applicant and find out if he or she has the right aptitudes required for the position.
Normally, before accessing a job interview, some preliminary steps are requested, such as the delivery of letters of recommendation or the curriculum vitae. In these types of interviews, the person applying for the job and a representative of thebusiness or institution to which you want to access.
The job interview can be structured, when a series of questions are asked that must be answered; or unstructured, when it comes to a dialogue between the interviewer and the interviewee in a more fluid or natural way. However, in general it is usually mixed, that is, the interviewee answers certain predetermined questions, but in turn open questions are asked, without an established order.
Job interviews can be individual or group (when several applicants are interviewed simultaneously). There are also panel-type interviews, in which there are multiple interviewers for an applicant.
Journalistic interviews are used as a testimonial means to give credibility to a certainreportage oranalysis. They are often used as an introduction to a topic or as material for aresearch or a certain analysis.
These interviews can be previously scheduled or they can arise unexpectedly (they are widely used in police, political and sports journalism).
There are different types of genres of this kind of interview:
- Opinion interviews. Type of interview in which the interviewee's opinions are sought. Many times no questions are asked, but only comments so that the interviewee orients his ideas towards a certain topic.
- Informative interviews. Type of interview in which the interviewer tries to get information that he does not know. In them, the interviewer has noknowledge subject matter, but acquires them as the interview progresses.
- Interpretive interviews. Type of interview in which the interviewer is knowledgeable about the topic of discussion and their questions are both informative and interpretive.
It can help you: 37 journalistic interviews with 37 journalists.
Clinical interviews are those that take place between a professional and a patient. Your goal is to get a feel for theproblems or pathologies suffered by the patient. In them the doctor or therapist asks certain questions and gives the patient indications or clarifications.
This type of interview tries to build a certain relationship between the doctor and the patient, always counting on confidence and trust as the basis of this bond.
These interviews are usually short and specific, but the professional asking the questions must take into account human warmth and sensitivity. In this way, the patient will feel comfortable and will continue with their medical visits without interruption. Generally, they are usually planned meetings.