We explain what the bone system is and the parts it is made of. In addition, its various functions and possible diseases.
The skeletal system, together with the muscular and articular systems, forms the locotomoric apparatus of the body.
What is the skeletal system?
The complex and complete bone system is called structure composed of the 206 bones of the human skeleton, as well as the cartilage, ligaments and tendons that allow them to properly connect to the musculature or other bones.
The bone system is then made up of:
- Bones. Rigid structures, mineralized from calcium and others metals, are the hardest and most resistant parts of the human body and the Vertebrate animals. In its interior, in addition, is the marrow that fulfills hematopoietic functions (red blood cells are created).
- Cartilage Cartilage is found at the ends of the bones, protecting them by acting as a cushion, so that one does not collide with another, thus avoiding wear and tear. They are flexible and thick structures, composed mainly of collagen.
- Ligaments Very resistant, dense and elastic fibrous tissues, which join the bones together at the points of rotation that are the joints. Thus, it is vital for movement, but also to prevent the bones from slipping out of place or moving unnaturally.
- Tendons Like the ligaments, they are thick and elastic fibrous tissues, which join the muscles to the rigid parts of the bones, allowing the force of the muscle cells to be transmitted to the bones and thus making possible the movement voluntary.
Functions of the bone system
The bones serve as an internal shield, isolating and defending the vital organs.
The bone system fulfills the following functions:
- Structure. The bones of the skeleton give the human body its defined shape and determine its posture. They provide rigidity and support to soft tissues, keeping everything in its respective place.
- Protection. Being hard and inflexible pieces, the bones serve as an internal shield, as protection against the forces coming from outside the body, isolating and defending the vital organs.
- Movement. Along with the muscles, the bones provide the body with the possibility of voluntary coordinated movement, thus being able to move, use tools, etc.
- Hematopoiesis. Different types of blood cells, and even regulatory substances, are made in the bone marrow.
- Storage. Various minerals such as calcium and phosphorus are stored in the bones, not only to provide them with hardness, but to be used later as an input in muscle contraction and other organic processes, thus being a last-minute store of resources. On the other hand, bones also allow the storage of certain types of lipids, in the yellow marrow of its interior.
Diseases of the bone system
The best known diseases that affect the bone system are the following:
- Cancer. Produced in the bone marrow by the abnormal multiplication of certain cells (myeloma) or sometimes between the hardened cells of its stiffest part (sarcoma). It leads to weakening of the structure and painful local numbness.
- Osteoporosis. It is a chronic loss of calcium that hardens the bones, closely associated with age and other processes inherent to the human body, causing thinning of the bones and increasing their fragility, which requires a combined treatment with calcium supplements. and physical exercise.
- Paget's disease. It is a congenital ailment that causes the cells that give rise to bone to malfunction, leading to abnormal thickening and widening of the skeletal structure.
- Rickets. Due to a deficiency in the intake of vitamin D or some endogenous problem that prevents its absorption, patients with this disease present a progressive weakening of the bones, which makes them painfully fragile.