We explain what a chemical bond is and how they are classified. Examples of covalent bonds, ionic bonds, and metallic bonds.Chemical bonds can be broken under certain and certain conditions.
What is a chemical bond?
A chemical bond is the force that binds atoms together to form chemical compounds. This union confers stability to the resulting compound.The energy required to break a chemical bond is called the bond energy.
In this process, the atoms give up or share electrons from the valence shell (the outer shell of an atom where its reactivity or its tendency to form bonds is determined), and they join together constituting new homogeneous substances (notmixtures), inseparable through physical mechanisms such as thefiltered out or the sifted.
It is a fact thatatoms that form the matter they tend to join together through various methods that balance or share their natural electrical charges to achieve more stable conditions than when separated. Chemical bonds constitute the formation of organic and inorganic molecules and, therefore, are part of the basis of the existence of living organisms. Similarly, chemical bonds can be broken under certain and certain conditions.
This can occur by subjecting the chemical compounds to high temperatures, applying electricity or promoting chemical reactions with other compounds. For example, if we apply electricity to water it is possible to separate the chemical bonds between hydrogen and oxygen that make it up, this process is called electrolysis. Another example is adding large amounts of caloric energy to a protein, which would lead to denature it (lose the secondary structure of a protein) or break its bonds.
See also:Atomic models
Types of chemical bond
There are three known types of chemical bond, depending on the nature of the atoms involved:
- Covalent bond. It occurs between non-metallic atoms and similar electromagnetic charges (usually high), which join and share some pairs of electrons from their valence shell. It is the predominant type of bond in organic molecules and can be of three types: simple (A-A), double (A = A) and triple (A≡A), depending on the amount of shared electrons.
- Ionic bond. It consists of the electrostatic attraction between particles with electrical charges of opposite signs called ions (electrically charged particle, which can be an atom or molecule that has lost or gained electrons, that is, it is not neutral).
- Metallic bond. It occurs only between metallic atoms of the same element, which generally constitute solid, extremely compact structures. It is a strong bond, which joins the atomic nuclei together, surrounded by their electrons as in a cloud.
Examples of chemical bonding
Some examples of compounds with covalent bond:
- Benzene (C6H6)
- Methane (CH4)
- Glucose (C6H12O6)
- Ammonia (NH3)
- Freon (CFC)
- In all forms of carbon (C): carbon, diamonds, graphene, etc.
Some examples of compounds with ionic bond:
- Magnesium oxide (MgO)
- Sulfate copper (CuSO4)
- Potassium Iodide (KI)
- Manganese Chloride (MnCl2)
- Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
- Iron sulfide (Fe2S3)
Some examples of compounds with metallic bond:
- Iron bars (Fe)
- Copper deposits (Cu)
- Pure Gold Bars (Au)
- Pure Silver Bars (Ag)