We explain what non-metals are and some examples of these chemical elements. Also, its properties and what metals are.
Nonmetals are the least abundant in the periodic table.
What are non-metals?
Nonmetals are not very abundant elements in the Periodic table, and are characterized by not being good drivers of the heat, nor the electricity. Its properties are very different from those of metals. Moreover, they form covalent bonds to form molecules among them.
The essential elements for life They are part of the non-metals (oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur). These non-metallic elements have very diverse properties and aspects: they can be solid, liquids or fizzy to temperature environment.
Examples of non-metals
Nonmetals are essential for organic life.
They are mainly classified as:
- Halogens Fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), astate (At) and tenese (Ts).
- Noble gases. Helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), radon (Rn), oganeson (Og).
- Other non-metals. Hydrogen (H), carbon (C), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), selenium (Se) and phosphorus (P).
Properties of non-metals
Bromine is liquid under normal conditions.
Nonmetals are distinguished from metals in that:
- They are usually not good conductors, neither of heat nor of electricity.
- They present various aggregation states under normal conditions: solid (like sulfur), gaseous (like hydrogen) or liquid (like bromine).
- Have melting points very low (compared to metals).
- They are not bright and tend to have various colors.
- They are not ductile or malleable.
- They always acquire a negative charge when ionizing.
- When combined with oxygen they form anhydrides (non-metallic oxides).
- They have in their last layer (valence layer) 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 electrons.
- They mostly form molecules of two or more atoms.
Metals are linked by ionic or metallic bonds.
Metals or metallic are elements of the Periodic Table that are characterized by being good conductors of electricity and heat. They are elements with high densities and that, in general, they are solid at room temperature (except for mercury). Furthermore, its ability to reflect the light gives them a characteristic shine.
Metals are the most numerous elements in the Periodic Table and some are among the most abundant in the Earth crust.
Metals have "metal links”. In metallic bonds, the metallic atoms are located very close to each other and all are "immersed" in their electrons of Valencia, forming the metallic structure. This occurs because the metallic atoms are united in such a way that their atomic nuclei join with the valence electrons (electrons located in the last electronic shell), which form a kind of cloud around them.