branches of law



We explain what are the branches of law according to the classical division, the characteristics of each frog and its subdivisions.

Each of the branches of law specializes in one aspect of justice.

What are the branches of law?

The right is the set of principles and rules that regulate the human societies around the concepts of Justice and order, and that the state they are capable of coercive imposition.But its study and analysis is also called that. In other words, law is at the same time the legal order of societies and the discipline who studies them.

It comprises a set of categories or sub-disciplines, specialized in the different application criteria of the law, as well as in the formulation of its own principles. These categories are known as the branches of law.

The classification of the law is based on three criteria, which are:

  • By its national or religious scope. That is, to the tradition cultural, political and historical that spawned them. For example: Germanic law, Anglo-Saxon law, roman law, etc.
  • Because of the specific activity that it regulates. That is, depending on what specific reality the laws studied regulate. For example: military law, labor law, banking law, etc.
  • Because of its technical scope. That is, by the parts of the legal process that they regulate. For example: civil law, criminal law, administrative law, etc.

Broadly speaking, however, the classic division between the branches of law occurs following the parameters inherited from Roman jurisprudence, one of the most important historically. In other words, the law is divided into three branches: public Law, private right Y social law, each with its particular branches.

Public Law

Criminal law is responsible for punishing the guilty and protecting the victims.

It is dedicated to controlling the way citizens establish ties with the State, either in a personal capacity or as long as organizations of a private nature, or to the organization of the Public Powers of the State, provided that they act legitimately and within the framework of what is established in the Constitution (or its equivalent).

This division of law includes the following branches:

  • Political law. Study and regulate the exercise of politics, that is, of command and subordination, the elements and classes of the State, the forms of government, political philosophy and other aspects related to it.
  • Constitutional right. It is dedicated to analysis of the fundamental rights enshrined in the Magna Carta or in the basic legal text of the company, whatever it may be, and ensures the regulation of public powers, subjecting them to the legal.
  • Administrative law. Dedicated to the study of public administration, that is, the regulation of the State, its public services and auxiliary bodies, which must operate in order to guarantee order, Justice and the security.
  • Immigration law. That which has to do with the international transit of individuals, their nationalization, immigration mechanisms and the right of entry, exit or stay of citizens of other countries.
  • Procedural law. Dedicated to the resolution of conflicts in an orderly, legal and valid manner, between individuals and the State, or between themselves, in accordance with the State's ordinance and the provisions of the laws regarding the judicial process and due guarantees.
  • Public international law. It is the one that deals with relations between States, within the international community and its bilateral agencies for cooperation, regulation and mediation in conflicts between national and international communities.
  • Fiscal or tax law. One who studies the collection and tribute mechanisms of the State.
  • Criminal law. Linked to the exercise of justice as punishment for the guilty and compensation for the victims, according to the legal code that distinguishes between what is legal and what is not.

Private right

It is in charge of the regulation of legal relationships between constituted individuals, that is, subjects of law, as equals, and without the interests of the State mediating therein. It is divided into three different branches:

  • Civil law. It comprises the set of rules that regulate the daily life of the human being, such as family relationships or the formation or dissolution of conjugal ties, parental authority, maternity, private property, civil registration, and the right to usufruct and possession of the different types of property, individual obligations and types of contract Between people.
  • Commercial law. It deals exclusively with commercial, financial, mercantile or economic exploitation acts that occur in legal, fair and formal terms between subjects of law, whether natural or legal persons.
  • Private international right. Regulates the international operations of individuals, and regulates nationalities and eventual conflicts between different legal frameworks.

Social law

Labor law regulates employment conditions and contracts.

Understand and study the laws and regulations that ensure the harmonious coexistence of individuals within a society that is egalitarian before the law, but uneven in terms of socioeconomic classes. To do this, it covers the following branches:

  • Labor law. It is in charge of regulating the conditions in which the work takes place, to guarantee that they are fair, equitable and respectful of the law, as well as the possibilities of representation union or union and other aspects that concern the professional practice. It comprises three sub-branches: individual labor law, collective labor law and procedural labor law.
  • Economic law. Understand the rules that regulate the participation of the State in the economic activity of a society, to provide legal certainty to the participants of the productive chain in its different stages.
  • Agricultural law. It regulates land tenure, agricultural exploitation and the various forms of non-urban property.
  • Ecological law. It deals with the set of defense norms of the environment and the ecological legacy of society, to prevent the indiscriminate and irresponsible use of natural resources or the pollution excessive and severe ecological damage.
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