inorganic chemistry



We explain what inorganic chemistry is. Also, how inorganic compounds are classified and some examples.

Inorganic chemistry is not based on carbon-hydrogen bonded compounds.

What is inorganic chemistry?

Inorganic chemistry is called the branch of chemistry which focuses its study on the formation, composition, classification and chemical reactions of the inorganic compounds, that is, of those in which carbon-hydrogen bonds do not predominate (typical of organic chemistry).

The distinction between organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry is not always as visible as it may seem, and the two areas of study often overlap or share their field of expertise. knowledge, as occurs in organometallic chemistry (studies chemical compounds that have at least one bond between a atom of carbon belonging to an organic compound and a metal atom).

Initially it was thought that the difference between both disciplines had to do with a certain "vital impulse" of organic chemistry, since it is the one used to explain the emergence of the life, But that hypothesis it has been discarded as this has become better understood.

On the other hand, formerly the substances composed of carbon that were extracted from the plants were classified as "organic". plants and the animals. While the substances extracted from stones and minerals were called "inorganic". Nowadays, with scientific and technological advances, it is possible to synthesize organic substances in chemical laboratories, for example, fullerene and graphene.

Inorganic chemistry is widely used in geology, mineralogy, magnetochemistry, geochemistry and other similar fields of application.

Classification of inorganic compounds

Strong bases in aqueous solutions contribute OH– ions.

Inorganic compounds can be classified according to the number of elements involved in the formation of each of them:

  • Binary compounds. They are those that are made up of only two chemical elements, such as:
    • Oxides They are compounds formed by the union of oxygen (O2) with some metallic element (basic oxides) or non metallic (acid oxides) of the Periodic table. The properties of oxides are very diverse, and can be found in all three aggregation states. For example, some are gaseous, like carbon dioxide (CO2), and others are solid, like magnesium oxide (MgO).
    • Peroxides Peroxides are formed by joining the peroxide group (O22-) with a metallic element. In these compounds, oxygen has oxidation number -1. They can be flammable and cause explosions.
    • Hydrides They can be metallic and non-metallic. Metal hydrides are formed by the union of a hydride anion (H–) with a negative electrical charge, with any metal cation (positive charge). Non-metallic hydrides are formed by the union of a non-metal (which in this case always reacts with its lowest oxidation state), and hydrogen. In the case of metal hydrides, they can have metallic properties such as good electric conductivity. They can be thermally unstable and cause explosions.
    • Hydracids or binary acids. They are binary acids composed of hydrogen and a nonmetal other than oxygen. Acids have a characteristic odor and taste sour or bitter. His pH is less than 7. They are also good conductors of electricity when they are in dissolution watery.
    • Binary salts. They are compounds formed by sets of electrically charged atoms, either cations (+) or anions (-). These salts are made up of two types of atoms. TO temperature ambient are crystalline solids of high melting and boiling temperature. They are good conductors of electrical current in aqueous solution.
  • Ternary compounds. They are those in which three chemical elements are involved. Such as:
    • Hydroxides They are compounds resulting from the union of a metallic element with a hydroxyl group (OH–). They are commonly called "bases" or "alkalis". At room temperature they are solid and are generally corrosive. They react with acids to produce salts.
    • Oxacids. They are acidic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an anhydride (a non-metallic oxide) and Water. Its formula always depends on a HaAbOc pattern, where A is a transition metal or a nonmetal, and a, b, and c are the subscripts that indicate the amount of each atom. These compounds have acidic properties, their pH is less than 7.
    • Ternary salts. They are compounds formed by sets of electrically charged atoms, either cations (+) or anions (-). These salts are made up of just three types of atoms. Its properties are equivalent to those of binary salts.

Examples of inorganic compounds

Pool Chlorine (NaClO) is a base.

Some common examples of the compounds listed above are:

  • Binary acids or hydracids. Hydrofluoric acid (HF (aq)), hydrochloric acid (HCl (aq)).
  • Oxacids. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), carbonic acid (H2CO3), sulfurous acid (H2SO3).
  • Metal hydrides. Hydride Lithium (LiH), beryllium hydride (BeH2).
  • Non-metallic hydrides. Hydrogen Fluoride (HF (g)), Hydrogen Chloride (HCl (g)).
  • Bases. Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) (NaOH), magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) (Mg (OH) 2), sodium hypochlorite (pool chlorine and bleach) (NaClO), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).
  • Metal oxides Cuprous oxide or copper (I) oxide (Cu2O), cupric oxide or copper (II) oxide (CuO), ferrous oxide or iron (II) oxide (FeO), sodium oxide (Na2O).
  • Non-metallic oxides. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide or sulfur dioxide (SO2), dibromo monoxide or bromine (I) oxide (Br2O).
  • Binary salts. Sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium bromide (KBr), iron trichloride or iron (III) chloride (FeCl3)
  • Ternary salts. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3), calcium phosphate (Ca3 (PO4) 2), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4).
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